In vivo hypermutation of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaque by APOBEC3 proteins[size=-1]A Zhang, H Bogerd, F Villinger, JD Gupta, B Dong… - Virology, 2011[/size]
proviral sequences isolated from infected rhesus macaques contain extensive
G→A mutations typical of A3 activity. ...
962–965, TGGC, TGAC, A3DE, RIl-10: 11/18. RYh-10:
0/18. Full-size table. View Within Article. XMRV
is susceptible to rhA3 isoforms in cultured cells ...
Received 13 July 2011; revised 26 July 2011; Accepted 17 August 2011. Available online 6 October 2011. AbstractThe gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), replicates to high titers in some human cell lines and is able to infect non-human primates. To determine whether APOBEC3 (A3) proteins restrict XMRV infections in a non-human primate model, we sequenced proviral DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of XMRV-infected rhesus macaques. Hypermutation characteristic of A3DE, A3F and A3G activities was observed in the XMRV proviral sequences in vivo. Furthermore, expression of rhesus A3DE, A3F, or A3G in human cells inhibited XMRV infection and caused hypermutation of XMRV DNA. These studies show that some rhesus A3 isoforms are highly effective against XMRV in the blood of a non-human primate model of infection and in cultured human cells.Keywords:
XMRV; APOBEC3; Hypermutation; Retrovirus; Host restriction; Innate immunity