Thiamine disulfide is one of the chelating agents I listed above that also has an anti-HIV action. I had a closer look at this and found some interesting stuff:
1. A form of thiamine disulfide, Sulbutiamine, was found effective to treat 'astenia', which is a condition of chronic fatigue that is cerebral rather than neuromuscular in origin. It was found to cross the BBB and act on regions of the brain known to be involved in astenia. Sulbutiamine is available OTC.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulbutiamine
"In a study of 1772 patients with an infectious disease and asthenic symptoms, sulbutiamine was administered in addition to specific anti-infective treatment for 15 days. The number of patients with complete resolution of all asthenic symptoms was 916..."
J Assoc Physicians India. 2003 Sep;51:891-5.
Adjuvant role of vitamin B analogue (sulbutiamine) with anti-infective treatment in infection associated asthenia.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14710977
Drugs Today (Barc). 1999 Mar;35(3):187-92.
Pharmacologic and therapeutic features of sulbutiamine.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12973384
"Sulbutiamine, a highly lipophilic thiamine derivative, is the only antiasthenic compound known to cross the blood-brain barrier and to be selectively active on specific brain structures directly involved in asthenia."
2. Some forms of thiamine disulfide have an anti-HIV action:
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Aug 28;249(3):745-53.
An allosteric drug, o,o'-bismyristoyl thiamine disulfide, suppresses HIV-1 replication through prevention of nuclear translocation of both HIV-1 Tat and NF-kappa B.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731208
"BMT inhibits nuclear translocation of both HIV-1 transactivator (TAT) and the cellular transcriptional nuclear factor-KB (NF-kappa B), resulting in the suppression of HIV-1 replication."
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Nov 30;205(1):967-75.
Thiamine disulfide as a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (type-1) production.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7999140
"The results suggest that thiamine disulfide may be important for AIDS chemotherapy."
I am not sure what exact form of tiamine disulfide is used in the above article...
3. Several forms of thiamine disulfide are available OTC:
- Sulbutiamine = O-isobutyrylthiamine disulfide: http://www.amazon.com/Grams-1-06-Sulbutiamine-Powder-Arcalion/dp/B005XOPLUW
- Fursultiamine = thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide = TTFD: http://www.iherb.com/Cardiovascular-Research-Ltd-Lipothiamine-60-Enteric-Coated-Tablets/37107
- Allitiamine = thiamine allyl disulfide: found in garlic : http://www.iherb.com/Cardiovascular-Research-Ltd-Ecological-Formulas-Allithiamine-Vitamin-B1-50-mg-250-Capsules/25831
(Not sure here why TTFD is listed as ingredient in this allithiamine supplement, since those are supposed to be different forms)
Benfothiamine is not a disulfide form and it does not cross the BBB.
BMC Pharmacol. 2008; 8: 10
Benfotiamine, a synthetic S-acyl thiamine derivative, has different mechanisms of action and a different pharmacological profile than lipid-soluble thiamine disulfide derivativeshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2435522/?tool=pubmed
I have been taking benfothiamine for a few years, but I am thinking I might try to switch to a disulfide form of thiamine, might try all three of the above, especially since raw garlic has always been miraculous for me, but I rarely use it since it is so strong and corrosive for the upper GI.. One problem is I heard oral availability is very poor for TTFD...